Part I.  Multiple Choice; 60 points; 3 points each.

1.       Before the Civil War, the principle of popular sovereignty was proposed as a means of

a)      allowing states to secede from the Union

b)      permitting voters to nullify federal laws

c)      deciding the legalization of slavery in a new state

d)     overturning unpopular decisions of the Supreme Court

2.       As the United States acquired more land between 1803 and 1850, controversy over these territories focused on the

a)      need for schools and colleges

b)      failure to conserve natural resources

c)      expansion of slavery

d)     construction of transcontinental railroads


A. Nullification crisis
B. Kansas-Nebraska Act
Dred Scott v. Sanford
D. Election of Lincoln (1860)

3.       Which heading best completes the partial outline?

a)      Foreign Policies of the United States

b)      Government Policies Toward Native American Indians

c)      Consequences of Manifest Destiny

d)     Causes of Sectional Conflict

4.       During the early 1800s, the United States placed few restrictions on immigration because

a)      the Constitution did not allow restrictions

b)      labor unions welcomed the new workers

c)      southern landowners needed additional workers

d)     the industrial economy was creating new jobs

5.       The phrase “by military conquest, treaty, and purchase” best describes the

a)      steps in the growth of American industry

b)      methods used to expand the territory of the United States

c)      major parts of President Woodrow Wilson’s Fourteen Points

d)     causes of the United States entry into the Korean War

"Compromise Enables Maine and Missouri To Enter Union" (1820)
"California Admitted to Union as Free State" (1850)
"Kansas-Nebraska Act Sets Up Popular Sovereignty" (1854)

6.  Which issue is reflected in these headlines?

a)      enactment of protective tariffs

b)      extension of slavery

c)      voting rights for minorities

d)     universal public education

7.      A major reason for the issuance of the Monroe Doctrine (1823) was to

a)      discourage United States trade with Latin America

b)      defend the Panama Canal from Great Britain

c)      prevent further European colonization in the Caribbean region

d)     provide economic aid to Latin American nations

8. During the presidency of Andrew Jackson, the spoils system resulted in

a)      federal laws being nullified by the states

b)      elected officials rewarding their supporters with government jobs

c)      all free males being given the right to vote

d)     the end of political corruption in the federal government

9.  The Fugitive Slave Act most favored the interests or activities of

  1. escaped slaves
  2. slave owners
  3. abolitionists
  4. Northern industrialists

10. In the Dred Scott decision, the Court ruled that African Americans

a.       Had no rights

b.      Could not relocate

c.       Could not become citizens

d.      Could engage in litigation

11. Which geographic advantage did the United States gain by purchasing the Louisiana Territory from France in 1803?

a)      warm-water ports on the Atlantic coast

b)      rich fishing areas in the Great Lakes

c)      full control of the Mississippi River

d)     vast coal reserves in the region west of Pennsylvania

12. The Sante Fe and Oregon trails are best described as

  1.  Railroad lines
  2. Manifest destiny
  3. Westward expansion routes
  4. The Mormon migration

Base your answers to questions 13 and 14 on the quotation below and on your knowledge of social studies.

“How can an industrialized Northeast, a plantation South, and a small farms West peacefully share the same nation?”

13. This quotation best describes the United States during which time period?

  1. Federal Era (1789-1800)
  2. Pre-Civil War (1820-1860)
  3. Era of Overseas Expansion (1898-1914)
  4. Great Depression of the 1930s

14. Which term can be most accurately applied to the situation in the quotation?

  1.  Sectionalism
  2. Protectionism
  3. Liberalism
  4. Militarism

15. In the United States history, which characteristic was common to the War of 1812, the Mexican War, and the Spanish-American War?

  1.  They were fought to promote democratic principles.
  2. Their aim was expansion of the United States self-interest
  3. They reflect conditions in Western Europe
  4. They were necessary to protect national security

16. During the 19th Century, the expansion of the population of the United States affected the lives of the Native Americans in that most Indians

a) Moved to urban areas in large numbers

b) Sought to form alliances with other minority groups

c) Were forced to move westward

d) Chose to adopt the culture of the settlers.

17. Which event was the immediate cause of the secession of several southern states from the Union in 1860?

  1.  The Dred Scott decision which declared that all prior compromises on the extension of slavery into territories were unconstitutional
  2. The Missouri Compromise, which kept an even balance between the number of free and slaves states
  3. The raid on the federal arsenal at Harper’s Ferry, which was led by the militant abolitionist John Brown
  4.  The election of President Abraham Lincoln, who opposed the spread of slavery into the territories.

18. When President Thomas Jefferson acquired the Louisiana Territory from France, he demonstrated that he had modified his belief that

a)      the Constitution should be strictly interpreted

b)      the federal government should limit individual rights

c)      adding territory would lead to regional rivalries

d)     commercial development was the main goal of the federal government  

19. The legal basis for the United States purchase of the Louisiana Territory was the

a)      power granted to the President to make treaties

b)      President’s power as Commander in Chief

c)      authority of Congress to declare war

d)     Senate’s duty to approve the appointment of ambassadors

20. The Louisiana Purchase had great geographic significance for the United States because it

a)      reduced British control of North America

b)      focused the United States on westward expansion

c)      extended United States control over Mexico

d)     decreased tensions with Native American Indians


Part II  DBQ’s  40 points; 5 points each



Document 4

. . . Regarding it as a war [Mexican War] to strengthen the “Slave Power,” we are conducted to a

natural conclusion, that it is virtually, and in its consequences, a war against the free States of the

Union. Conquest and robbery are attempted in order to obtain a political control at home; and

distant battles are fought, less with a special view of subjugating [conquering] Mexico, than with

the design of overcoming the power of the free States, under the constitution. The lives of

Mexicans are sacrificed in this cause; and a domestic question, which should be reserved for

bloodless debate in our own country, is transferred to fields of battle in a foreign land. . .


— Resolution passed by the Massachusetts Legislature opposing the Mexican War;

Massachusetts House Documents, 1847


4 According to this resolution, what was one reason the Massachusetts legislature opposed the Mexican War? [1]



Document 5

Stephen Douglas replied to Abraham Lincoln’s question about the Kansas-Nebraska Act in a speech given Freeport, Illinois. This reply occurred during the second debate in the political contest for the United States Senate seat from Illinois in 1858.

. . . The next question propounded [put forward] to me by Mr. Lincoln is, can the people of a

Territory in any lawful way, against the wishes of any citizen of the United States, exclude slavery

from their limits prior to the formation of a State Constitution? I answer emphatically, as Mr.

Lincoln has heard me answer a hundred times from every stump [platform] in Illinois, that in my

opinion the people of a Territory can, by lawful means, exclude slavery from their limits prior to

the formation of a State Constitution. Mr. Lincoln knew that I had answered that question over

and over again. He heard me argue the Nebraska bill [Kansas-Nebraska Act] on that principle

all over the State in 1854, in 1855, and in 1856, and he has no excuse for pretending to be in

doubt as to my position on that question. It matters not what way the Supreme Court may

hereafter decide as to the abstract question whether slavery may or may not go into a Territory

under the Constitution, the people have the lawful means to introduce it or exclude it as they

please, for the reason that slavery cannot exist a day or an hour anywhere, unless it is supported

by local police regulations. Those police regulations can only be established by the local

legislature, and if the people are opposed to slavery they will elect representatives to that body

who will by unfriendly legislation effectually prevent the introduction of it into their midst. If, on

the contrary, they are for it, their legislation will favor its extension. Hence, no matter what the

decision of the Supreme Court may be on that abstract question, still the right of the people to

make a slave Territory or a free Territory is perfect and complete under the Nebraska bill. I hope

Mr. Lincoln deems my answer satisfactory on that point. . . .

Source: Stephen Douglas, Freeport Doctrine, 1858



5 According to this document, how did the Kansas-Nebraska Act attempt to resolve the issue of slavery in the territories? [1]



Document 7

. . . Sec.2. And be it further enacted, That the right of way through the public lands be, and the

same is hereby, granted to said company [The Union Pacific Railroad Company] for the

construction of said railroad and telegraph line; and the right, power, and authority is hereby

given to said company to take from the public lands adjacent to the line of said road, earth, stone,

timber, and other materials for the construction thereof; said right of way is granted to said

railroad to the extent of two hundred feet in width on each side of said railroad where it may pass

over the public lands, including all necessary grounds for stations, buildings, workshops, and

depots, machine shops, switches, side tracks, turn-tables, and water stations. The United States

shall extinguish as rapidly as may be, the Indian titles to all lands falling under the operation of

this act and required for the said right of way and grants hereinafter made.

Sec.3. And be it further enacted, That there be, and is hereby, granted to the said company,

for the purpose of aiding in the construction of said railroad and telegraph line, and to secure the

safe and speedy transportation of the mails, troops, munitions of war, and public stores thereon,

every alternate section of public land, designated by odd numbers, to the amount of five

alternate sections per mile on each side of said railroad, on the line thereof, and within the limits

of ten miles on each side of said road, not sold, reserved, or otherwise disposed of by the United

States, and to which a preëmption or homestead claim may not have attached, at the time the

line of said road is definitely fixed: Provided, That all mineral lands shall be excepted from the

operation of this act; but where the same shall contain timber, the timber thereon is hereby

granted to said company. And all such lands, so granted by this section, which shall not be sold

or disposed of by said company within three years after the entire road shall have been

completed, shall be subject to settlement and preëmption, like other lands, at a price not

exceeding one dollar and twenty-five cents per acre, to be paid to said company. . . .

— The Pacific Railroad Act, July 1, 1862

7a According to this document, what did the federal government give the Union Pacific Railroad Company

to help them construct the railroad and the telegraph line? [1]



b According to this document, how did the Pacific Railroad Act help the United States expand westward? [1]